|This report presents the outcome of a survey-supported study and its
statistical analysis, exploring the impact that non-tariff measures
(NTMs) have on European-African agriculture and food trade by gaining
feedback from relevant stakeholders directly involved in commercial
In this study NTMs are considered to be all policy trade measures that affect trade flows, other than ordinary customs tariffs, and that can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both. Some of these measures may constitute non-tariff barriers.